Например, наблюдаем в dmesg такую картину:

[11903.002030] ata3.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x1 SErr 0x0 action 0x6 frozen
[11903.003179] ata3.00: failed command: READ FPDMA QUEUED
[11903.003364] ata3.00: cmd 60/08:00:a8:77:57/00:00:00:00:00/40 tag 0 ncq 4096 in
[11903.003385]          res 40/00:01:00:00:00/00:00:00:00:00/00 Emask 0x4 (timeout)
[11903.004074] ata3.00: status: { DRDY }
[11903.004248] ata3: hard resetting link
[11903.325703] ata3: SATA link up 3.0 Gbps (SStatus 123 SControl 300)
[11903.327097] ata3.00: configured for UDMA/133
[11903.328025] ata3.00: device reported invalid CHS sector 0
[11903.329664] ata3: EH complete
[11941.000472] ata3.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x1 SErr 0x0 action 0x6 frozen
[11941.000769] ata3.00: failed command: READ FPDMA QUEUED
[11941.000952] ata3.00: cmd 60/08:00:c8:77:57/00:00:00:00:00/40 tag 0 ncq 4096 in
[11941.000961]          res 40/00:01:00:00:00/00:00:00:00:00/00 Emask 0x4 (timeout)
[11941.001353] ata3.00: status: { DRDY }
[11941.001504] ata3: hard resetting link
[11941.320297] ata3: SATA link up 3.0 Gbps (SStatus 123 SControl 300)
[11941.321252] ata3.00: configured for UDMA/133
[11941.321379] ata3.00: device reported invalid CHS sector 0
[11941.321553] ata3: EH complete
[11980.001746] ata3.00: exception Emask 0x0 SAct 0x11fff SErr 0x0 action 0x6 frozen
[11980.002070] ata3.00: failed command: WRITE FPDMA QUEUED
[11980.002255] ata3.00: cmd 61/18:00:28:23:59/00:00:00:00:00/40 tag 0 ncq 12288 out
[11980.002265]          res 40/00:01:00:00:00/00:00:00:00:00/00 Emask 0x4 (timeout)

Пробуем фиксить стандартно:

mount / -o remount,rw
mount: cannot remount block device /dev/sda1 read-write, is write-protected

Пробуем по-другому:

blockdev --setrw
или так:

hdparm -r 0

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